Royex system frequently asked questions (FAQ)

Welcome to the Royex system frequently asked questions page. Here you will find a collection of the most common inquiries and questions sent to us. If you have any other specific question, please do not hesitate to contact us.
We normally reply within 24 hours.


Royex is an innovative rock breaking system consisting of non-detonating cartridges and a unique initiation system. The Royex  deflagrating cartridges are based on a pyrotechnical mixture encased in a robust plastic housing. The system is classified as 1.4S in contrast to conventional explosives which are normally 1.1 or similar.  Initiation is achieved via an unique initiation system, the Maxfire igniter. This system is exclusive to the Royex system and is unmatched by any of our competitors, being capable of individual hole timing. It is available as a shock tube or electric initiation system. 

Upon initiation, the propellant mixture generates a fast expanding gas consisting mainly of nitrogen,  water steam and carbon dioxide. If properly applied inside a drill hole, the expanding gas will penetrate into natural fissures present in the rock and thereby fragment the rock into the nearest free face.

The purpose of Royex is to offer an alternative to mechanical rock breaking methods or conventional explosives where mechanical rock breaking tools are too slow, in efficient or otherwise not suitable or where conventional explosives are too risky or difficult to use. 

Royex was developed in response to the increasing need for a safe alternative to conventional explosives. In projects where conditions require delicate rock breaking  conventional explosives may be difficult or impossible to use due to the risk of collateral damage and rock / ground vibrations. The risk of fly rock and blast damage is a persistent problem in excavations and blasting in built up areas or near sensitive infrastructure.

Royex offers a solution where the intended result can be obtained while minimizing risk of blast damage, fly rock and ground vibration.
The Royex System has been comprehensively tested in numerous rock situations and formations and can be tailored to suit almost any challenge.

The benefits of Royex are among others:

General Operations

  • Pre-defined sequentially timed blasting patterns are possible via shock tube or electric initiators
  • The Modular initiation system allows for customized timings and loading patterns*
  • Continuous blasting is possible
  • Good fragmentation control
  • Greatly increased operational and handling safety
  • No 1.1D (B) explosives are present at work site
  • Transportation, storage and general logistical control issues minimized by the product’s 1.4S classification
  • Air shipping allows for faster deliveries and relaxes stock requirements
  • In EU, P2 classified product, no track and trace management required

Production blasting and tunnelling

  • Proven reduced dilution in gold, platinum and diamond mining
  • Continuous mining possibilities
  • Oxygen balanced – minimal noxious gases, rapid re-entry
  • Slyping and secondary blasting operations can take place during shift
  • Ideal solution for on shift blasting or secondary blasting in block caving
  • Minimal crush zone around holes after blasting, thereby reducing fines and dust while improving recovery rates
  • Improves hanging wall conditions thereby improving safety
  • Minimal fly rock implies easier and quicker cleaning, less damage to support, no need for blasting barricades in narrow reef mining operations


  • Continuous mining possibilities. Optional configurations using the timing initiation system allow for multiple decking
  • Extended pit boundaries due to low vibration, minimal fly rock and less dust during blasting operations – prolonged pit lifetime
  • Improved secondary blasting in pit due to low fly rock risk
  • High precision blasting for dimensional quarries, less wire sawing or downstream cutting
  • Reduced safety distances for machinery and personnel
  • No track and trace required
  • Complete 1.4S solution – less complicated storage, transport and import

Civil engineering

  • 1.4S timing solution and smoother blasting allows for greatly reduced vibration levels and precision cuts close to infrastructure
  • Similar drilling patterns to conventional blasting
  • Quick loading and tie up procedures saves time
  • Less fly rock – significantly lower risk for damage

No. Conventional explosives are designed to detonate when initiated. Royex deflagrates and, when unconfined, is very safe if initiated unintentionally. The Royex cartridge is classified as a pyrotechnic product of class P2 (in the EU). Maxfire igniters have the lower class of P1. 

Royex and Maxfire conforms to 1.4S UN classification. This classification is given to products that do not explode when ignited in their original packaging. This makes Royex a non-explosive by definition for transport and storage. The propellant responsible for the gas expansion in the Royex cartridge burns (or deflagrates) at a velocity related to the cartridge confinement. This means, that if the cartridge is initiated in a poorly confined environment, for instance, in the products initial packaging, the burning velocity is so low that the expanding gases are unable to cause an explosion. Conventional explosives, with a far faster burn rate, will explode (or detonate) in their original packaging with serious consequences. With these considerations the 1.4S cartridge is much safer to store and transport.

Conventional explosives explode or detonate in their original state if initiated. This is not the case with Royex. The cartridge will only burn if initiated freely or in its original package. Conventional explosives generate a super sonic shock wave which gives far greater ground and rock vibration than Royex products making them either difficult or impossible to use near sensitive structures and populated areas. Royex Systems generate minimal ground and rock vibration and therefore have minimal and controllable effects on adjacent structures.

The results of rock breaking with Royex are restricted to a small area and tailor made rock breaking can be achieved. Conventional explosives cause largely un-controlled explosions making them a much less sophisticated tool for sensitive operations.

Even without coverage the Royex system causes minimal fly rock which can be completely eliminated with proper coverage. In contrast, conventional explosives can result in dangerously large amounts of fly rock and require far more onerous safety precautions. Drilling and rock breaking can be carried out concurrently because of the clearance distances permitted with Royex Systems. Significantly higher production output is possible with substantial impact on related costs whereas the clearance of personnel and hauling equipment required for conventional explosives occupies a large part of the operational time cycle.

Noise levels using conventional explosives are unhealthy and potentially harmful. Environmental concerns, the proximity to residential areas, places of cultural heritage or particular sensitivity such as schools and hospitals have to be protected. Royex emits very low sound levels and operations are possible with no interference or disturbance to nearby facilities.

The difference in rock breaking between detonating explosives and deflagrating, propellant-based, cartridges is that explosives function by detonation following shock initiation whereas propellants burn steadily at a slower rate. The deflagration speed is  determined by parameters such as composition, diameter and initiation efficiency. The rate of burning or deflagration of a propellant in a drill hole will typically be in the range 400– 900 meters per second, compared to the typical burning or detonation rates of explosives in the range of 3000 – 8000 meters per second.

Since the rate of gas emission from either the detonation of explosives or the ignition of propellant, confined in a drill hole, is proportional to the rate of burning, the build up of pressure in the hole is directly related to the burning or detonation speed. At the point in time at which the rock surrounding the drill hole starts to dislodge, the gas contained in the drill hole is released. In the case of explosives, the pressures in the drill hole are so high, due to the rate of detonation of the explosive, that the release of the gases is a violent event that results in a high level of fly rock, shock waves and a high overpressure which produces a destructive concussion effect especially in confined spaces such as are found in underground mines.


To professional blasters, Royex  is an excellent tool for perimeter blasting, underground and surface secondary or precision blasting. When close to sensitive infrastructures, Royex is an excellent addition to any blasters toolbox. This is especially true in urban environments where conventional explosives cause excessive vibration and noise.

The system normally falls under less stringent regulatory obligations and logistical requirements. In EU, no track and trace management is required and with the 1.4S classification, storage and supply chain management is less complicated. The products can be transported by ordinary passenger or cargo air transport and delivery times are normally less than 14 business days to any approved airport. (Therefore it is possible to operate with far reduced product inventory).

Vibration, noise and logistical management is normally significantly easier in civil engineering blasting when using Royex is compared to use of conventional explosives. The unique Maxfire timing ability ensures efficiencies comparable to conventional explosive use in small borehole blasting and bench blasting.

Storage and local transport is simplified by the Royex 1.4S classification and the absence of track and trace requirements eliminate the prolonged lead times associated with conventional explosives.

For more examples and information, look at our applications page here

The Royex cartridge generates minimal fly rock and noise upon initiation. This means that sensitive equipment such as drill rigs, crushers and loaders can remain in or close to the blasting area thereby increasing operational efficiency. The product also extends quarry life length as blasting is possible close to structures like offices, roads and housing.  Further, Royex may be used as a smooth blasting product in the back holes to ensure stable quarry back wall integrity. 

Royex is also an excellent solution for correction blasting in the quarry such as managing toes or overhangs. 

For more examples and information, look at our applications page here

Apart from all the benefits offered in aggregate quarries, Royex small diameter cartridges may be used to replace the use of black powder. Royex is effective in achieving  straight and clean cuts to dimensional stone with minimal risk of cracks. The system is also waterproof which means it may be used in wet holes. This enables operations when the blast is required, not when the weather allows. 

For more examples and information, look at our applications page here


Absolutely. The Royex system have successfully been used and operationally implemented in full face tunneling.

Royex have been used for civil projects and mining tunneling. Example tunnel dimensions are 2,5 x 2,5 (advances from 2,6-4,3 meters), 4,5 x 4,5 (advances up to 4,8 meters), 8,4 x 12,6 (advances up to 3,6 meters). Royex is very effective in tunneling, reducing toxic gas emissions, over break and lowers powder factors. When vibration limits are in place, Royex is an excellent alternative to small diameter packaged emulsion or electronic detonators. 

As over break is very important to control in tunneling, Royex is ideal to use together with conventional explosives in perimeter holes. Royex can be connected to the same initiation system used for other holes (cut, easers and lifters) allowing the Royex system to be integrated to normal blasting operations

For more examples and information, look at our applications page here

Royex is an excellent and safe solution for tunnel expansion (slyping) and development. Use of Royex maintains the integrity of the tunnel wall, avoiding fracture zones, while allowing for effective breaking.

Minimal noxious gasses are generated and slyping operations can take place during normal shift work. With 32-48 mm drill holes and hole depths up to 4,8 m, burdens of 0,60-1,2 m can be achieved efficiently and consistently. With minimal fly rock there is little risk of damage to surrounding pipes, cables and ventilation columns.

In tunnel development, advances of 3-6  meters per blast are possible dependent on drill quality, rock tensile strength and stemming efficiency. With efficient drilling, mucking and clearing multiple blasts per shift are achievable.

For more examples and information, look at our applications page here

Yes. Normally fragmentation is a bit coarser when compared to conventional explosives. However, Royex generates minimal amounts of  fines and dust. Fragmentation size can be controlled depending on customer requirements. Normal fragmentation for tunnel development is normally between 100-300 mm depending on drill patterns and rock conditions.

Depending on the application anything from hand held electrical drills allowing for 25 mm drill holes up to drifter / surface and DTH rigs for up to 89 mm holes can be used. Pneumatic or hydraulic drill systems using coned or tampered drill steel with button drill bits are recommended.

Recommended hole sizes are from 28-54 mm.

Additional required accessories are:

  • Drilling equipment
  • Shot exploder / initiation machine
  • Firing line (shooting cable) or shock tube 
  • Resistance meter (to check continuity)
  • Stemming material
  • Tamping rod
  • If required, blast mats


Whereas a standard fuse head burns for microseconds at a temperature around 360° Celcius the Royex Maxfire burns for milliseconds at over 900° Celcius. In other words the pyrotechnical mixture in the Royex cartridge is exposed to greater and longer duration of initiation heat by the hot Maxfire and consequently initiation is quick, powerful and guaranteed.

The Maxfire Initiation System is unique and no other product available offers the ability to delay or time individual holes, or sets of holes, in a predetermined sequence so as to achieve coordinated blasting in any situation. The correct delay timing helps to achieve better fragmentation of the blasted material and reduces ground vibration, air blast, and fly-rock.

The propellant mix used in the Royex cartridge has been developed to ensure optimal burn and power without compromising oxygen balance or density. The base ingredients used have a high quality and have been carefully selected to ensure the composition achieves optimal burn speeds and gas volumes. The grain and density balance ensures no separation during transport and storage. It also ensures a high reliability and power.

In hard granite (over 280 MPa), a Royex 100 gram cartridge breaks approximately one cubic meter if in situ in a 45 mm hole (two free faces).

If used in a loose boulder, a 15 gram cartridge is enough to break 1 cubic meter. For coarser fragmentation, 50 gram per cubic meter is recommended for boulders. Softer rock such as lime- or sandstone will naturally require smaller cartridges.

Off course. Please contacts us with your inquiry.


Rock vibrations are strongly dependent on charge weight, rock conditions and the proximity of the measuring equipment relative to the blast in question. Tests in granite shows that Royex may generate vibrations up to 68 mm/second at a distance of 1 meter from the vibration detector, for a load weight of 1 kilogram and 8 cubic meters blasted. Below is example data from a case study done in Sweden:

Distance to sensor (m)Blast no 1 (mm/s)Blast no 2 (mm/s)Blast no 3 (mm/s)Blast no 4 (mm/s)

Yes, case studies and reports from third parties are available upon request.

Normally very little, with proper blast and drill patterns, coverage and stemming, a Royex blast usually goes completely unnoticed. Royex has been used successfully where blasting has been done meters from roads and infrastructure.

In sensitive and urban areas, it is recommended to use heavy duty coverage mats designed for blasting or use mucking to cover the blast.
For additional safety, thin fiber cloth should be placed over the coverage to restrict small fly rock.

For electrical tie ups, always use a resistance meter to check the tie up continuity. Ensure that the resistance is the sum of igniter resistances plus resistance for the firing cable. Always do a manual connection check before covering or firing. 

Minimal if correctly applied. If shallow holes with small burdens are loaded excessively, rock throws may occur. Always ensure the proper size cartridge is used relative to the burden, spacing and hole depth. Sufficient coverage must be used when working close to installations such as housing, infrastructure or equipment. The rule is to always apply extra coverage if uncertain.

Since minimal noxious gases are generated and ground vibration, dust and flyrock is minimized, Royex can safely be operated under ground. Hanging wall and side wall control may be optimized and continuous mining operations are possible.

Standard safety zone recommendation is 30 meters assuming proportional blast mat coverage is used. This however must always be assessed based on circumstances at the blast site. 

Yes, underground gas data reports from third parties are available upon request.

Demonstrations, sales and orders

Please send us your inquiry and let us know where you are (address for shipping) and what you would like to achieve. Once received, we will investigate supply and logistic solutions, and communicate our recommendations and quotations. If a distributor is in your area, we will revert to the distributor. 

Yes, however, samples require advance payment. This payment (excluding shipping charges) will be deducted on the next order. We must also ensure that the right permits to import, store and use are in place.

Yes, please contact us for more information.

Yes, contact us and let us know your situation.

Please contact us for more information

Send us an email or give us a call and we will direct the request to our most suitable distributor.


Transport and distribution

Required permits vary from territory to territory. Normally an import permit is required by the importer, this is normally handled by the regional distributor. Reach out to your local police agency, customs office  or other relevant authority. You will also likely require a permit to store 1.4S goods. In Europe, a training to use P2 products is also required. Please reach out to us and we will aid in your specific situation.
Smaller consignments are shipped normally via air (passenger or cargo). Road and maritime consignments are used for larger shipments. Lead times, depending on local availability is around ten business days.